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A+ Windows Boot Process

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Certification Training: A+ Windows Boot Process

The Windows Boot Process occurs in the following order:
ntldr
boot.ini
ntdetect.com
dtbootdd.sys

ntldr
The NT loader is used to load the Windows NT kernal. This relies on both boot.ini and ntdetect.com. The NT loader is located in %systemroot%.

boot.ini
The boot.ini is a configuration file used by NTLDR to load the operating system.  The boot.ini file is located in %systemroom%.

ntdetect.com
The ntdetect.com detects and loads various hardware devices and it uses the hardware keys found in the registry.

ntbootdd.sys
The ntbootdd.sys is an alternate loader file used when the main disk is SCSI-based instead of IDE.  The ntbootdd.sys is not handled by the BIOS firmware.

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A+ Common Port Numbers

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Certification Training: A+ Common Port Numbers

FTP        port 21
SSH       port 22
SMTP    port 25
HTTP    port 80
POP3     port 110
HTTPS  port 443

Tip: Do your best to memorize the ports because you will be tested on them. Memorize them both forward and backward. Study these right before the exam and jot them down as soon as you get your dry erase board at the testing center.  Knowing the ports quickly will save you a fair amount of time on the test itself.

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A+ File Systems

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Certification Training: A+ File Systems

Windows:     Fat32& NTFS
Macintosh:   HFS & HFS+
Linux:           EXT & XFS

Tip: To help remember A+ file systems think about their names. Macintosh file systems have the letter H in their names and it is the only operating system with an H in its name. Likewise both Linux file systems contain the letter X which no other operating system name or file system contains.

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A+ HKEY Group Explanations

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Certification Training: A+ HKEY Group Explanations

HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
Stores information on registered applications, file extension associations, and object class IDS.

HKEY_CURRENT_USER
This stores settings specific to the current logged-in user.

KEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
This stores the settings of all the users recognized by the computer.

HKEY_USERS
Stores specific information each individual user to load specific settings.

HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG
This stores information gathered during system run time.

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A+ Notes Part 1

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Certification Training: A+ Notes Part 1

The 6-step Troubleshooting Process:
1) Identify the problem
2) Establish theory of probably cause
3) Test the theory to determine cause
4) Establish and implement a plan
5) Verify the fix
6) Document everything you do

Bridges
North Bridge: This is located close to the processor. The North Bridge handles communication between RAM, AGP and PCIE slots.

South Bridge: Located further away from the processor than the North Bridge.  The South Bridge handles slower communications such as: PCI, IDE and USB.

Fire classifications
Class A Fire: Orindary combustibles
Class B Fire: Flammable liquids and gasses
Class C Fire: Electrical equipment

Power Supplies
Most are between 120 and 240 volts.
Most are between 200 and 500 watts.
The current form factor standard of a power supply is ATX.

PC Cards
Type    Size      Used for
I           3.3in      Storage
II             5in      NICs, cellular cards
III   10.5mm      HDD

USB / Fireware Transfer rates
USB 1.1        12 Mbps
USB 2.0        480 Mbps
IEEE 1394    400 Mbps
IEEE 1394b    800 Mbps

Memory Pins
SIMM    72
DIMM    168
RIMM    184
SODIMM    144 OR 204

Cable lengths
Serial (RS232)       50 feet
USB                          9 feet
Parallel                   10 or 25 feet
Ethernet                  100-300 meters
ThinNet                   185 meters
ThickNet                  500 meters
Fiber Optic single mode    30 miles
Fiber Optic multi mode    2,000 kilometers

ertification Training: A+ Notes part 1

The 6 step Troubleshooting Process:
1) Identify the problem
2) Establish theory of probably cause
3) Test the theory to determine cause
4) Establish and implement a plan
5) Verify the fix
6) Document everything you do

Bridges
North Bridge
This is located close to the processor. The North Bridge handles communication between RAM, AGP and PCIE slots.

South Bridge
Located further away from the processor than the North Bridge.  The South Bridge handles slower communications such as: PCI, IDE and USB.

Fire classifications
Class A Fire
Orindary combustibles

Class B Fire
Flammable liquids and gasses

Class C Fire
Electrical equipment

Power Supplies
Most are between 120 and 240 volts.
Most are between 200 and 500 watts.
The current form factor standard of a power supply is ATX.

PC Cards
Type    Size    Used for
I    3.3in    Storage
II    5in    NICs, cellular cards
III     10.5mm    HDD

USB / Fireware Transfer rates
USB 1.1        12 Mbps
USB 2.0        480 Mbps
IEEE 1394    400 Mbps
IEEE 1394b    800 Mbps

Memory Pins
SIMM    72
DIMM    168
RIMM    184
SODIMM    144 OR 204

Cable lengths
Serial (RS232)        50 feet
USB            9 feet
Parallel        10 or 25 feet
Ethernet        100-300 meters
ThinNet            185 meters
ThickNet        500 meters
Fiber Optic single mode    30 miles
Fiber Optic multi mode    2,000 kilometers

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Certification Training: IP Address Classifications

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Certification Training: IP Address Classifications

Class A
1.0.0.1 to 126.255.255.254
(Supports 16 million hosts)
Class B
128.1.0.1 to 191.255.255.254
(Supports 65,000 hosts)
Class C
192.0.1.1 to 223.255.254.254
(Supports 254 hosts)
Class D
224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255
(multicast groups)
(Unlikely to be tested on certification exams)
Class E
240.0.0.0.0 to 254.255.255.254
(strictly used for testing/research)
(Unlikely to be tested on certification exams)

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